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Guide to Common Industrial Transformer Voltages

Ever wondered why industrial equipment has different supply voltages? Check out our guide to common transformer voltages for all your different applications.

Written by:
Ben Gulick & Jeremy Abegg-Guzman

January 9, 2024

A low voltage dry type transformer powering a CNC machine, Bitcoin Mine, and a Solar Array

Transformers provide quick and easy voltage changes for industrial and commercial projects. The voltage you step up or step down to with your transformer is dependent on what you are powering.

(Learn more about what a transformer is and how it works.)

CNC machines, motors, solar farms, and bitcoin mines all need transformers to change their supply voltage. The voltage required for all these machines varies by country and use case.

Table of Common Industrial Transformer Voltages 

Below are the most common voltages for transformers powering these industrial applications.

Standard Import Renewable
480 Volts - United States 600 Volts - Canada 800 Volts - Solar
240 Volts - United States 416 Volts - Crypto Mining 690 Volts - Wind
208 Volts - United States 400 Volts - European 630 Volts - Solar
380 Volts - China 600 Volts - Solar

Standard Transformer Voltages in the United States

The three most common transformer voltages used in the US are 480, 240, and 208. Most industrial and commercial buildings are wired to receive 480V 3-phase. Inside these buildings, step down transformers drop the voltage down to 240, 208, or 120 for smaller devices and equipment. 

One of our customers, US Digital, used several of these transformers in their building. Check out their experience using Maddox transformers to power on their CNC and plastic injections machines.

The next time you need one of these transformers, order from Maddox. We keep 480v Delta to 240v Delta/120 and 3-phase 480v Delta to 208 Y 120 step down transformers in stock at all times. With delivery times as fast as 5-7 days, we get you the equipment you need faster than anybody else will. 

Import Transformer Voltages

Machinery imported from other countries may require a voltage supply not commonly found in the United States. This means it will need a transformer.

The standard Canadian voltage: 600V

600 VAC is the common industrial supply voltage in Canada (similar to 480 VAC in the US). Machinery manufactured for use in Canada may be designed to operate at 600 volts for this reason. When used in the US, such equipment will require a transformer to step the voltage up for use at 600 volts.

The crypto mining voltage: 416V

While not strictly an import voltage, 416 is often used for crypto currency mining. Crypto miners are configured to run on a 240 volt single-phase power supply. The simplest way to do this utilizes the line to neutral voltage supplied by a 416 volt 3-phase wye transformer. If you see 416 volts, think crypto mining. 

We have worked with multiple crypto miners in the past including SCATE ventures.

Need a transformer for your crypto mine? Check out our 480V Delta - 416 Y/ 240 transformers.

The European standard voltage: 400V

In Europe, 400 volts is the common industrial voltage. To use European equipment designed for 400 volts in US applications, you'll need a transformer to adjust the building's voltage up or down. A good example of this is US manufacturers utilizing a German CNC machine that requires 400 volts.

If you are looking at doing this, check out our 480V Delta - 400 Y 231 dry-type units.

The Asian standard voltage: 380V

380 volts is the most common 3-phase distribution voltage used in China and the rest of Asia. China is one of the largest exporters of machinery to the US. You will find transformers stepping the supply voltage up or down to 380 volts in the US running equipment from Asia. 

If you have a machine that requires 380 volts, shop our 480V Delta - 380 Y 220 transformers.

Renewable Transformer Voltages

“Renewable voltages” are the common voltages produced by wind farms and solar arrays. The most common voltages for renewable energy are: 800V, 690V, 630V, and 600V. 

Learn more about solar transformer sizing and design requirements—inverters, harmonics, DC bias, overload, bi-directionality, and more.

Transformer supply voltages for renewable projects (solar and wind farms)

Fill out our quote request form if you are looking for transformers for your solar or wind farm.

Solar array voltages: 800V, 630V, and 600V

800, 630, and 600 are all common voltages used when working with solar arrays. 800 volts is more common with European inverter manufacturers. 630 volts is usually found in large solar arrays. Lastly, 600 volts is the most common solar inverter output voltage in the industry. 

Wind farm voltages: 690V

690 is the primary voltage for wind farms. Turbines create DC power which is later converted to AC power. A transformer then converts it to 690 volts before transmission. 


With so many different voltage variations, you can see why there is no real standard transformer. Fill out the form below if you need one of these transformers to power your project.

Want to know how to get the right transformer? Read our article that provides a step by step guide to buying the right 600v class transformer.

Maddox padmount transformer loaded on truck

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